**Up****:** Home page for Qhull

**Up:** Qhull manual: Table of Contents

**To:** Programs
• Options
• Output
• Formats
• Geomview
• Print
• Qhull
• Precision
• Trace

**To:** synopsis
• input • outputs
• controls • graphics
• notes • conventions
• options

The intersection of a set of halfspaces is a polytope. The polytope may be unbounded. See Preparata & Shamos ['85] for a discussion. In low dimensions, halfspace intersection may be used for linear programming.

Example:rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n | qhalf Fp- Print the intersection of the facets of a cube.
rbox cgenerates the vertices of a cube.qconvex FV nreturns of average of the cube's vertices (in this case, the origin) and the halfspaces that define the cube.qhalf Fpcomputes the intersection of the halfspaces about the origin. The intersection is the vertices of the original cube.- Print the intersection of the facets of a cube and a diamond. There are 24 facets and 14 intersection points. Four facets define each diamond vertext. Six facets define each cube vertex.
- Same as above except triangulate before computing the intersection points. Three facets define each intersection point. There are two duplicates of the diamond and four duplicates of the cube.

Qhull computes a halfspace intersection by the geometric duality between points and halfspaces. See halfspace examples, qhalf notes, and option 'p' of qhalf outputs.

By default, halfspace intersections may be defined by more than
*d* halfspaces. See the previous cube and diamond example.
This is the expected output for halfspace intersection.

You can try triangulated output and joggled input. It demonstrates that triangulated output is more accurate than joggled input.

If you use 'Qt' (triangulated output), all halfspace intersections are simplicial (e.g., three halfspaces per intersection in 3-d). In 3-d, if more than three halfspaces intersect at the same point, triangulated output will produce duplicate intersections, one for each additional halfspace. See the previous cube and diamond example.

If you use 'QJ' (joggled input), all halfspace intersections are simplicial. This may lead to nearly identical intersections. For example, replace 'Qt' with 'QJ' above and compare the duplicated intersections. See Merged facets or joggled input.

The 'qhalf' program is equivalent to
'qhull H' in 2-d to 4-d, and
'qhull H Qx'
in 5-d and higher. It disables the following Qhull
options: *d n v Qbb QbB Qf Qg Qm
Qr QR Qv Qx Qz TR E V Fa FA FC FD FS Ft FV Gt Q0,etc*.

**Copyright © 1995-2003 The Geometry Center, Minneapolis MN**

qhalf- halfspace intersection about a point. input (stdin): [dim, 1, interior point] dim+1, n halfspace coefficients + offset comments start with a non-numeric character options (qhalf.htm): Hn,n - specify coordinates of interior point Qt - triangulated output QJ - joggle input instead of merging facets Tv - verify result: structure, convexity, and redundancy . - concise list of all options - - one-line description of all options output options (subset): s - summary of results (default) Fp - intersection coordinates Fv - non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection Fx - non-redundant halfspaces o - OFF file format (dual convex hull) G - Geomview output (dual convex hull) m - Mathematica output (dual convex hull) QVn - print intersections for halfspace n, -n if not TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes examples: rbox d | qconvex n | qhalf s H0,0,0 Fp rbox c | qconvex FV n | qhalf s i rbox c | qconvex FV n | qhalf s o

The input data on

stdinconsists of:

- [optional] interior point

- dimension
- 1
- coordinates of interior point
- dimension + 1
- number of halfspaces
- halfspace coefficients followed by offset
Use I/O redirection (e.g., qhalf < data.txt), a pipe (e.g., rbox c | qconvex FV n | qhalf), or the 'TI' option (e.g., qhalf TI data.txt).

Qhull needs an interior point to compute the halfspace intersection. An interior point is inside all of the halfspaces

Hx+b <= 0. The interior point may be in the input. If not, option 'Hn,n' defines the interior point as [n,n,0,...] where0is the default coordinate (e.g., 'H0' is the origin). Use linear programming if you do not know the interior point (see halfspace notes),The input to qhalf is a set of halfspaces. Each halfspace is defined by

dcoefficients followed by a signed offset. This defines a linear inequality. The coefficients define a vector that is normal to the halfspace. The vector may have any length. If it has length one, the offset is the distance from the origin to the halfspace's boundary.This is the same format used for output options 'n', 'Fo', and 'Fi'. Use option 'Fd' to use cdd format for the halfspaces.

For example, here is the input for computing the intersection of halfplanes that form a cube.

rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n TO data

RBOX c | QCONVEX FQ FV n 3 1 0 0 0 4 6 0 0 -1 -0.5 0 -1 0 -0.5 1 0 0 -0.5 -1 0 0 -0.5 0 1 0 -0.5 0 0 1 -0.5qhalf s Fp < data

Halfspace intersection by the convex hull of 6 points in 3-d: Number of halfspaces: 6 Number of non-redundant halfspaces: 6 Number of intersection points: 8 Statistics for: RBOX c | QCONVEX FQ FV n | QHALF s Fp Number of points processed: 6 Number of hyperplanes created: 11 Number of distance tests for qhull: 11 Number of merged facets: 1 Number of distance tests for merging: 45 CPU seconds to compute hull (after input): 0 3 3 8 -0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5

The following options control the output for halfspace intersection.

Intersections- FN
- list intersection points for each non-redundant halfspace. The first line is the number of non-redundant halfspaces. Each remaining lines starts with the number of intersection points. For the cube example, each halfspace has four intersection points.
- Fn
- list neighboring intersections for each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line starts with the number of neighboring intersections. For the cube example, each intersection point has three neighboring intersections. In 3-d, a non-simplicial intersection has more than three neighboring intersections. Use option 'QJ' to avoid non-simplicial intersections.
- Fp
- print intersection coordinates. The first line is the dimension and the second line is the number of intersection points. The following lines are the coordinates of each intersection.
- FI
- list intersection IDs. The first line is the number of intersections. The IDs follow, one per line.
Halfspaces- Fx
- list non-redundant halfspaces. The first line is the number of non-redundant halfspaces. The other lines list one halfspace per line. A halfspace is
non-redundantif it defines a facet of the intersection. Redundant halfspaces are ignored. For the cube example, all of the halfspaces are non-redundant.- Fv
- list non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection point. The first line is the number of non-redundant halfspaces. Each remaining line starts with the number of non-redundant halfspaces. For the cube example, each intersection is incident to three halfspaces.
- i
- list non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line lists the incident, non-redundant halfspaces. For the cube example, each intersection is incident to three halfspaces.
- Fc
- list coplanar halfspaces for each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line starts with the number of coplanar halfspaces. A coplanar halfspace is listed for one intersection point even though it is coplanar to multiple intersection points.
- Qi Fc
- list redundant halfspaces for each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line starts with the number of redundant halfspaces. Use options 'Qc Qi Fc' to list coplanar and redundant halfspaces.
General- s
- print summary for the halfspace intersection. Use 'Fs' if you need numeric data.
- o
- print vertices and facets of the dual convex hull. The first line is the dimension. The second line is the number of vertices, facets, and ridges. The vertex coordinates are next, followed by the facets, one per line.
- p
- print vertex coordinates of the dual convex hull. Each vertex corresponds to a non-redundant halfspace. Its coordinates are the negative of the hyperplane's coefficients divided by the offset plus the inner product of the coefficients and the interior point (-c/(b+a.p). Options 'p Qc' includes coplanar halfspaces. Options 'p Qi' includes redundant halfspaces.
- m
- Mathematica output for the dual convex hull in 2-d or 3-d.
- FM
- Maple output for the dual convex hull in 2-d or 3-d.
- G
- Geomview output for the dual convex hull in 2-d, 3-d, or 4-d.

These options provide additional control:

- Qt
- triangulated output. If a 3-d intersection is defined by more than three hyperplanes, Qhull produces duplicate intersections -- one for each extra hyperplane.
- QJ
- joggle the input instead of merging facets. In 3-d, this guarantees that each intersection is defined by three hyperplanes.
- f
- facet dump. Print the data structure for each intersection (i.e., facet)
- TFn
- report summary after constructing
nintersections- QVn
- select intersection points for halfspace
n(marked 'good')- QGn
- select intersection points that are visible to halfspace
n(marked 'good'). Use-nfor the remainder.- Qbk:0Bk:0
- remove the k-th coordinate from the input. This computes the halfspace intersection in one lower dimension.
- Tv
- verify result
- TI file
- input data from file. The filename may not use spaces or quotes.
- TO file
- output results to file. Use single quotes if the filename contains spaces (e.g.,
TO 'file with spaces.txt'- Qs
- search all points for the initial simplex. If Qhull can not construct an initial simplex, it reports a descriptive message. Usually, the point set is degenerate and one or more dimensions should be removed ('Qbk:0Bk:0'). If not, use option 'Qs'. It performs an exhaustive search for the best initial simplex. This is expensive is high dimensions.

To view the results with Geomview, compute the convex hull of the intersection points ('qhull FQ H0 Fp | qhull G'). See Halfspace examples.

If you do not know an interior point for the halfspaces, use linear programming to find one. Assume,

nhalfspaces defined by:aj*x1+bj*x2+cj*x3+dj>=0, j=1..n. Perform the following linear program:max(x5) aj*x1+bj*x2+cj*x3+dj*x4-x5>=0, j=1..n

Then, if

[x1,x2,x3,x4,x5]is an optimal solution withx4,x5>0we get:aj*(x1/x4)+bj*(x2/x4)+cj*(x3/x4)+dj>=(x5/x4)>0, j=1..n

and conclude that the point

[x1/x4,x2/x4,x3/x4]is in the interior of all the halfspaces. Note thatx5is optimal, so this point is "way in" the interior (good for precision errors).After finding an interior point, the rest of the intersection algorithm is from Preparata & Shamos ['85, p. 316, "A simple case ..."]. Translate the halfspaces so that the interior point is the origin. Calculate the dual polytope. The dual polytope is the convex hull of the vertices dual to the original faces in regard to the unit sphere (i.e., halfspaces at distance

dfrom the origin are dual to vertices at distance1/d). Then calculate the resulting polytope, which is the dual of the dual polytope, and translate the origin back to the interior point [S. Spitz and S. Teller].

The following terminology is used for halfspace intersection in Qhull. This is the hardest structure to understand. The underlying structure is a convex hull with one vertex per non-redundant halfspace. See convex hull conventions and Qhull's data structures.

interior point- a point in the intersection of the halfspaces. Qhull needs an interior point to compute the intersection. See halfspace input.halfspace-dcoordinates for the normal and a signed offset. The distance to an interior point is negative.non-redundant halfspace- a halfspace that defines an output facetvertex- a dual vertex in the convex hull corresponding to a non-redundant halfspacecoplanar point- the dual point corresponding to a similar halfspaceinterior point- the dual point corresponding to a redundant halfspaceintersection point- the intersection ofdor more non-redundant halfspacesfacet- a dual facet in the convex hull corresponding to an intersection pointnon-simplicial facet- more thandhalfspaces intersect at a pointgood facet- an intersection point that satisfies restriction 'QVn', etc.

qhalf- compute the intersection of halfspaces about a point http://www.qhull.org input (stdin): optional interior point: dimension, 1, coordinates first lines: dimension+1 and number of halfspaces other lines: halfspace coefficients followed by offset comments: start with a non-numeric character options: Hn,n - specify coordinates of interior point Qt - triangulated ouput QJ - joggle input instead of merging facets Qc - keep coplanar halfspaces Qi - keep other redundant halfspaces Qhull control options: QJn - randomly joggle input in range [-n,n] Qbk:0Bk:0 - remove k-th coordinate from input Qs - search all halfspaces for the initial simplex QGn - print intersection if redundant to halfspace n, -n for not QVn - print intersections for halfspace n, -n if not Trace options: T4 - trace at level n, 4=all, 5=mem/gauss, -1= events Tc - check frequently during execution Ts - print statistics Tv - verify result: structure, convexity, and redundancy Tz - send all output to stdout TFn - report summary when n or more facets created TI file - input data from file, no spaces or single quotes TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes TPn - turn on tracing when halfspace n added to intersection TMn - turn on tracing at merge n TWn - trace merge facets when width > n TVn - stop qhull after adding halfspace n, -n for before (see TCn) TCn - stop qhull after building cone for halfspace n (see TVn) Precision options: Cn - radius of centrum (roundoff added). Merge facets if non-convex An - cosine of maximum angle. Merge facets if cosine > n or non-convex C-0 roundoff, A-0.99/C-0.01 pre-merge, A0.99/C0.01 post-merge Rn - randomly perturb computations by a factor of [1-n,1+n] Un - max distance below plane for a new, coplanar halfspace Wn - min facet width for outside halfspace (before roundoff) Output formats (may be combined; if none, produces a summary to stdout): f - facet dump G - Geomview output (dual convex hull) i - non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection m - Mathematica output (dual convex hull) o - OFF format (dual convex hull: dimension, points, and facets) p - vertex coordinates of dual convex hull (coplanars if 'Qc' or 'Qi') s - summary (stderr) More formats: Fc - count plus redundant halfspaces for each intersection - Qc (default) for coplanar and Qi for other redundant Fd - use cdd format for input (homogeneous with offset first) FF - facet dump without ridges FI - ID of each intersection Fm - merge count for each intersection (511 max) FM - Maple output (dual convex hull) Fn - count plus neighboring intersections for each intersection FN - count plus intersections for each non-redundant halfspace FO - options and precision constants Fp - dim, count, and intersection coordinates FP - nearest halfspace and distance for each redundant halfspace FQ - command used for qhalf Fs - summary: #int (8), dim, #halfspaces, #non-redundant, #intersections for output: #non-redundant, #intersections, #coplanar halfspaces, #non-simplicial intersections #real (2), max outer plane, min vertex Fv - count plus non-redundant halfspaces for each intersection Fx - non-redundant halfspaces Geomview output (2-d, 3-d and 4-d; dual convex hull) Ga - all points (i.e., transformed halfspaces) as dots Gp - coplanar points and vertices as radii Gv - vertices (i.e., non-redundant halfspaces) as spheres Gi - inner planes (i.e., halfspace intersections) only Gn - no planes Go - outer planes only Gc - centrums Gh - hyperplane intersections Gr - ridges GDn - drop dimension n in 3-d and 4-d output Print options: PAn - keep n largest facets (i.e., intersections) by area Pdk:n- drop facet if normal[k] <= n (default 0.0) PDk:n- drop facet if normal[k] >= n Pg - print good facets (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn') PFn - keep facets whose area is at least n PG - print neighbors of good facets PMn - keep n facets with most merges Po - force output. If error, output neighborhood of facet Pp - do not report precision problems . - list of all options - - one line descriptions of all options

**Up:** Home page for Qhull

**Up:** Qhull manual: Table of Contents

**To:** Programs
• Options
• Output
• Formats
• Geomview
• Print
• Qhull
• Precision
• Trace

**To:** synopsis
• input • outputs
• controls • graphics
• notes • conventions
• options

Comments to: qhull@qhull.org

Created: Sept. 25, 1995 --- Last modified: see top